** **

**Historical background:** Shapley-Curtis debate, Hubble's expansion law.

**Galaxies:** Hubble sequence,properties of spirals and ellipticals, luminosity functions, clustersof galaxies, dynamics, gas content, dark matter

**Active Galaxies:** phenomenology, accreting black hole paradigm

**Observational basis for the cosmological principle:** large scale structure, cosmic microwave background radiation

**Cosmological distance ladder:** standard candles, direct and indirect distance estimate techniques

**Cosmochronology:** nuclear cosmochronology, ultra-metal-poor halo stars, globular clusters MS turnoff, white dwarf cooling

**Robertson-Walker Metric:** isotropic curved spaces, general form of R-W metric, cosmic time, comoving coordinates, scale factor

**Observations and metric:**redshift, time dilation, Hubble's law, angular diameters, luminositydistance, K-correction, number densities, age of the universe

**Special/general relativity refresher:**spacetime geometry, principle of equivalence, acceleration andcurvature, weak static field (Newtonian) metric, Einstein equation

**Friedman equations:** R-W metric, energy-momentum tensor, energy density evolution

**Friedman world models:** dynamics of single and multi component universes, Ω_{M}-Ω_{L}"diagnostic" plane

**Inflation:** problems (flatness, horizon, monopoles), inflationary universe, phase transitions as mechanism for inflation

**Thermal history:** photon-baryon ratio, number and energy densities**,** time-temperature relationship**,** decoupling(s)

**Primordial (big bang) nucleosynthesis:** proton-neutron ratio**,** deuterium bottleneck, ^{4}He formation**,** primordial elements abundance measurements

**Recombination:** hydrogen formation, last scattering surface, constraints on reionization

**Density perturbations:**Jeans' instability in expanding cosmology, linear evolution (growth,stagnation, damping), primordial spectrum of perturbations, massvariance, non-linear phase, observational signatures

**Cosmic microwave background:**physical process and scales at last scattering surface, angular powerspectrum, cosmic variance, Sachs-Wolfe effect, acoustic peaks

**Typical Organization**

Lectures Tu Th 2:30 - 3:45

Homework (40%)

Participation (10%)

Project (20%)

Final exam (30%)

Text: Malcolm S. Longair, *Galaxy formation*

Other resources

*All information is representative only, and is likely to change from year to year.*